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Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(6):952-960. doi: 10.2174/1381612822666161006144942.

Cardiovascular Toxicity of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors and Promising Natur a l Substitutes.

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Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad. Iran.
Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical sciences, Shahrekord. Iran.
Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan. Iran.


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a group of drugs which are used for a wide variety of diseases including pain and inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders, and other comorbid complications. However, this group of drugs have undesirable effects such as peptic ulcer, bleeding and renal failure. Some of these side effects are associated with or caused by generation of oxidative stress. Following the withdrawal of a cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor drug, rofecoxib (VIOXX®) due to cardiovascular complications, scientists suggested that natural COX-2 inhibitors might provide valuable alternatives to COX inhibitors. Although, most of medicinal plants reduce pain and inflammation in a similar manner to synthetic medications, however, they often have fewer side effects and are better tolerated. The present review other than focusing on cardiovascular and some other complications of NSAIDs, is trying to introduce the natural alternative remedies for these medications.


COX; Cardiovascular; NSAID; medicinal plants; oxidative stress; toxicity

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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