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Am J Emerg Med. 2016 Dec;34(12):2336-2342. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2016.08.045. Epub 2016 Aug 26.

The quantitative evaluation of intracranial pressure by optic nerve sheath diameter/eye diameter CT measurement.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, Assaf Harofe Medical Center, Affiliated to Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
2
Stroke Unit, Assaf Harofe Medical Center, Affiliated to Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
3
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Assaf Harofe Medical Center, Affiliated to Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel. Electronic address: vaimed@yahoo.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The changes of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) have been used to assess changes of the intracranial pressure for 20 years. The aim of this research was to further quantify the technique of measuring the ONSD for this purpose.

METHODS:

Retrospective study of computed tomographic (CT) data of 1766 adult patients with intracranial hypotension (n=134) or hypertension (n=1632) were analyzed. The eyeball transverse diameter (ETD) and ONSD were obtained bilaterally, and the ONSD/ETD ratio was calculated. The ratio was used to calculate the normal ONSD for patients and to estimate the intracranial pressure of the patients before and after the onset of the pathology. Correlation analysis was performed with invasively measured intracranial pressure, the presence or absence of papilledema, sex, and age.

RESULTS:

In hypotension cases, the ONSD by CT was 3.4±0.7 mm (P=.03 against normative 4.4±0.8 mm). In cases with hypertension, the diameter was 6.9±1.3 (P=.02, with a cutoff value ˃5.5 mm). The ONSD/ETD ratio was 0.29±0.04 against 0.19±0.02 in healthy adults (P=.01).

CONCLUSION:

The ONSD and the ONSD/ETD ratio can indicate low intracranial pressure, but quantification is impossible at intracranial pressure less than 13 mm Hg. In elevated intracranial pressure, the ONSD and the ratio provide readings that correspond to readings in millimeters of mercury. The ONSD method, reinforced with additional calculations, may help to indicate a raised intracranial pressure, evaluate its severity quantitatively, and establish quantitative goals for treatment of intracranial hypertension, but the limitations of the method are to be taken into account.

PMID:
27717720
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajem.2016.08.045
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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