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J Affect Disord. 2017 Jan 1;207:86-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.09.026. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala and longitudinal changes in depression severity in adolescent depression.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address: colm.connolly@ucsf.edu.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, USA; Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, USA; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, USA.
5
Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, USA; Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
6
Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, 1700 4th St., San Francisco, CA, USA.
7
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA, USA; Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) rises during adolescence, yet the neural mechanisms of MDD during this key developmental period are unclear. Altered amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been associated with both adolescent and adult MDD, as well as symptom improvement in response to treatment in adults. However, no study to date has examined whether amygdala RSFC is associated with changes in depressive symptom severity in adolescents.

METHOD:

We examined group differences in amygdala RSFC between medication-naïve depressed adolescents (N=48) and well-matched healthy controls (N=53) cross-sectionally. We then longitudinally examined whether baseline amygdala RSFC was associated with change in depression symptoms three months later in a subset of the MDD group (N=24).

RESULTS:

Compared to healthy controls, depressed adolescents showed reduced amygdala-based RSFC with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Within the depressed group, more positive baseline RSFC between the amygdala and insulae was associated with greater reduction in depression symptoms three months later.

LIMITATIONS:

Only a subset of depressed participants was assessed at follow-up and treatment type and delivery were not standardized.

CONCLUSIONS:

Adolescent depression may be characterized by dysfunction of frontolimbic circuits (amygdala-DLPFC, amygdala-VMPFC) underpinning emotional regulation, whereas those circuits (amygdala-insula) subserving affective integration may index changes in depression symptom severity and may therefore potentially serve as a candidate biomarker for treatment response. Furthermore, these results suggest that the biomarkers of MDD presence are distinct from those associated with change in depression symptoms over time.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescent major depression; Amygdala; Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; Resting-state; Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

PMID:
27716542
PMCID:
PMC5149416
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2016.09.026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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