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J Mot Behav. 2017 Mar-Apr;49(2):172-178. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2016.1169982. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

Motor Planning Influences the Perceived Timing of Vibrotactile Stimuli in an Amplitude-Dependent Manner.

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a Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences , University of Washington , Seattle.
b School of Health and Exercise Sciences , University of British Columbia Okanagan , Kelowna , Canada.
c College of Sports Sciences , Sungkyunkwan University , Suwon , South Korea.


The authors characterized how motor planning influences temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks. They examined this by applying vibrotactile stimulation during the planning stages of a bimanual arm movement that would bring the arms into a crossed configuration. The authors have previously shown that planning to cross the arms induces a subjective reversal of spatially defined temporal order judgments that evolves over the course of the planning period. It was unclear, however, whether this effect is modulated by the extent to which the arms would be crossed after movement. The authors examined this issue by having participants plan to move to 4 different targets that would leave the arms in crossed configurations of varying extents. The results demonstrate that even though cutaneous stimuli were applied before the movements, if participants were planning to move into a more crossed configuration, performance on the TOJ task worsened depending on where they were in the planning process. This data suggest the brain uses planning signals to predict sensations from impending movements in a context-dependent manner.


bimanual; forward model; reaching; spatial; tactile; temporal order judgment

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