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Can J Cardiol. 2016 Nov;32(11):1263-1282. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2016.07.510. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidemia for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in the Adult.

Author information

1
Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address: todd.anderson@ahs.ca.
2
Institut de Cardiologie de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
3
Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
4
Chilliwack General Hospital, Chilliwack, British Columbia, Canada.
5
Centre Hospitalier de l'Université Laval, Laval, Québec, Canada.
6
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
7
St Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
8
McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
9
Montréal General Hospital and McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
10
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
11
Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada.
12
Julia MacFarlane Diabetes Research Centre, Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
13
St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
14
Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
15
University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
16
Institut Universitaire de cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Québec City, Québec, Canada.
17
Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
18
Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary and Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Abstract

Since the publication of the 2012 guidelines new literature has emerged to inform decision-making. The 2016 guidelines primary panel selected a number of clinically relevant questions and has produced updated recommendations, on the basis of important new findings. In subjects with clinical atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm, most subjects with diabetes or chronic kidney disease, and those with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥ 5 mmol/L, statin therapy is recommended. For all others, there is an emphasis on risk assessment linked to lipid determination to optimize decision-making. We have recommended nonfasting lipid determination as a suitable alternative to fasting levels. Risk assessment and lipid determination should be considered in individuals older than 40 years of age or in those at increased risk regardless of age. Pharmacotherapy is generally not indicated for those at low Framingham Risk Score (FRS; <10%). A wider range of patients are now eligible for statin therapy in the FRS intermediate risk category (10%-19%) and in those with a high FRS (> 20%). Despite the controversy, we continue to advocate for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets for subjects who start therapy. Detailed recommendations are also presented for health behaviour modification that is indicated in all subjects. Finally, recommendation for the use of nonstatin medications is provided. Shared decision-making is vital because there are many areas in which clinical trials do not fully inform practice. The guidelines are meant to be a platform for meaningful conversation between patient and care provider so that individual decisions can be made for risk screening, assessment, and treatment.

PMID:
27712954
DOI:
10.1016/j.cjca.2016.07.510
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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