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Redox Biol. 2016 Dec;10:100-107. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2016.09.007. Epub 2016 Sep 17.

Hyperglycemia induced damage to mitochondrial respiration in renal mesangial and tubular cells: Implications for diabetic nephropathy.

Author information

1
Diabetes Research Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.
2
Diabetes Research Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK. Electronic address: afshan.malik@kcl.ac.uk.

Abstract

Damage to renal tubular and mesangial cells is central to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN), a complication of diabetes which can lead to renal failure. Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration and produce energy in the form of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in DN. Since the kidney is an organ with high bioenergetic needs, we postulated that hyperglycemia causes damage to renal mitochondria resulting in bioenergetic deficit. The bioenergetic profiles and the effect of hyperglycemia on cellular respiration of human primary mesangial (HMCs) and proximal tubular cells (HK-2) were compared in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions using the seahorse bio-analyzer. In normoglycemia, HK-2 had significantly lower basal, ATP-linked and maximal respiration rates, and lower reserve capacity compared to HMCs. Hyperglycemia caused a down-regulation of all respiratory parameters within 4 days in HK-2 but not in HMCs. After 8 days of hyperglycemia, down-regulation of respiratory parameters persisted in tubular cells with compensatory up-regulated glycolysis. HMCs had reduced maximal respiration and reserve capacity at 8 days, and by 12 days had compromised mitochondrial respiration despite which they did not enhance glycolysis. These data suggest that diabetes is likely to lead to a cellular deficit in ATP production in both cell types, although with different sensitivities, and this mechanism could significantly contribute to the cellular damage seen in the diabetic kidney. Prevention of diabetes induced damage to renal mitochondrial respiration may be a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention/treatment of DN.

KEYWORDS:

Cellular bioenergetics; Diabetes; Mesangial cells; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Renal cells; Tubular cells

PMID:
27710853
PMCID:
PMC5053113
DOI:
10.1016/j.redox.2016.09.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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