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Clin Proteomics. 2016 Sep 26;13:25. eCollection 2016.

Precision medicine: from pharmacogenomics to pharmacoproteomics.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287 USA ; Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA 90033 USA.
2
Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287 USA.

Abstract

Disease progression and drug response may vary significantly from patient to patient. Fortunately, the rapid development of high-throughput 'omics' technologies has allowed for the identification of potential biomarkers that may aid in the understanding of the heterogeneities in disease development and treatment outcomes. However, mechanistic gaps remain when the genome or the proteome are investigated independently in response to drug treatment. In this article, we discuss the current status of pharmacogenomics in precision medicine and highlight the needs for concordant analysis at the proteome and metabolome levels via the more recently-evolved fields of pharmacoproteomics, toxicoproteomics, and pharmacometabolomics. Integrated 'omics' investigations will be critical in piecing together targetable mechanisms of action for both drug development and monitoring of therapy in order to fully apply precision medicine to the clinic.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarker; Pharmacogenomics; Precision medicine; Proteomics

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