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Sci Rep. 2016 Oct 6;6:34619. doi: 10.1038/srep34619.

Aromatic and proteomic analyses corroborate the distinction between Mediterranean landraces and modern varieties of durum wheat.

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  • 1Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via Mariscoglio 34, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
  • 2LINV-Department of Plant Soil and Environmental Science, University of Florence, Viale delle idee 30, I-50019 Sesto-Fiorentino (FI), Florence, Italy.
  • 3Laboratory of Ecological Plant Physiology, Global Change Research Institute CAS, Bělidla 986/4a, CZ-603 00 Brno, Czech Republic.
  • 4Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics (B080), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
  • 5Heidelberg Center for Personalized Oncology (DKFZ-HIPO), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
  • 6Department of Agricultural Sciences, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Salita Melissari, 89124 Reggio Calabria, Italy.
  • 7DISVA, Department of Life and Environmental Science, Marche Polytechnic University, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131, Ancona, Italy.
  • 8Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 4, 90128 Palermo, Italy.
  • 9Fondazione A. e S. Lima Mancuso, Piazza Marina, 61-90133 Palermo, Italy.


In this paper volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from durum wheat cultivars and landraces were analyzed using PTR-TOF-MS. The aim was to characterize the VOC's profile of the wholemeal flour and of the kernel to find out if any VOCs were specific to varieties and sample matrices. The VOC data is accompanied by SDS-PAGE analyses of the storage proteins (gliadins and glutenins). Statistical analyses was carried out both on the signals obtained by MS and on the protein profiles. The difference between the VOC profile of two cultivars or two preparations of the same sample - matrices, in this case kernel vs wholemeal flour - can be very subtle; the high resolution of PTR-TOF-MS - down to levels as low as pptv - made it possible to recognize these differences. The effects of grinding on the VOC profiles were analyzed using SIMPER and Tanglegram statistical methods. Our results show that it is possible describe samples using VOC profiles and protein data.

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