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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017 Jan;72(1):268-272. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Efficacy of ceftolozane/tazobactam against urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: a pooled analysis of Phase 3 clinical trials.

Author information

1
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA myra.popejoy@merck.com.
2
Center for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
3
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.
4
Detroit Medical Center and Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The increase in infections caused by drug-resistant ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-ENT) is a global concern. The characteristics and outcomes of patients infected with ESBL-ENT were examined in a pooled analysis of Phase 3 clinical trials of ceftolozane/tazobactam in patients with complicated urinary tract infections (ASPECT-cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (ASPECT-cIAI).

METHODS:

Trials were randomized and double blind. The ASPECT-cUTI regimen was 7 days of either intravenous ceftolozane/tazobactam (1.5 g) every 8 h or levofloxacin (750 mg) once daily. The ASPECT-cIAI regimen was 4-14 days of either intravenous ceftolozane/tazobactam (1.5 g) plus metronidazole (500 mg) or meropenem (1 g) every 8 h. Baseline cultures were obtained in both indications. Enterobacteriaceae were selected for ESBL characterization based on predefined criteria and were verified genotypically. Outcomes were assessed at the test-of-cure visit 5-9 days post-therapy in ASPECT-cUTI and 24-32 days post-randomization in ASPECT-cIAI among microbiologically evaluable (ME) patients.

RESULTS:

Of 2076 patients randomized, 1346 were included in the pooled ME population and 150 of 1346 (11.1%) had ESBL-ENT at baseline. At US FDA/EUCAST breakpoints of ≤2/≤1 mg/L, 81.8%/72.3% of ESBL-ENT (ESBL-Escherichia coli, 95%/88.1%; ESBL-Klebsiella pneumoniae, 56.7%/36.7%) were susceptible to ceftolozane/tazobactam versus 25.3%/24.1% susceptible to levofloxacin and 98.3%/98.3% susceptible to meropenem at CLSI/EUCAST breakpoints. Clinical cure rates for ME patients with ESBL-ENT were 97.4% (76/78) for ceftolozane/tazobactam [ESBL-E. coli, 98.0% (49 of 50); ESBL-K. pneumoniae, 94.4% (17 of 18)], 82.6% (38 of 46) for levofloxacin and 88.5% (23 of 26) for meropenem.

CONCLUSIONS:

Randomized trial data demonstrated high clinical cure rates with ceftolozane/tazobactam treatment of cIAI and cUTI caused by ESBL-ENT.

PMID:
27707990
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dkw374
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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