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Nutrients. 2016 Sep 30;8(10). pii: E614.

Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35-74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries.

Author information

1
Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70599, Germany. Wolfgang.Stuetz@uni-hohenheim.de.
2
Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena 07743, Germany. Wolfgang.Stuetz@uni-hohenheim.de.
3
Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena 07743, Germany. Daniela.Weber@dife.de.
4
Department of Molecular Toxicology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal 14558, Germany. Daniela.Weber@dife.de.
5
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), BA Bilthoven 3721, The Netherlands. Martijn.Dolle@rivm.nl.
6
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), BA Bilthoven 3721, The Netherlands. eugene.jansen@rivm.nl.
7
Institute for Biomedical Aging Research, Leipold-Franzens-University, Innsbruck 6020, Austria. beatrix.grubeck@uibk.ac.at.
8
Institute for Nutritional Sciences and Physiology, University for Health Sciences, Hall in Tirol 6060, Austria. simone.fiegl@umit.at.
9
Unit of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology, University of Namur, Namur 5000, Belgium. olivier.toussaint@fundp.ac.be.
10
BioTeSys GmbH, Esslingen 73728, Germany. j.bernhardt@biotesys.de.
11
Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), Athens 11635, Greece. sgonos@eie.gr.
12
Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy. claudio.franceschi@unibo.it.
13
Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw 02-093, Poland. e.sikora@nencki.gov.pl.
14
Molecular Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz 78457, Germany. maria.moreno-villanueva@uni-konstanz.de.
15
Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70599, Germany. breusing@uni-hohenheim.de.
16
Department of Applied Nutritional Science/Dietetics, Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70599, Germany. breusing@uni-hohenheim.de.
17
Department of Molecular Toxicology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal 14558, Germany. scientific.director@dife.de.
18
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Munich-Neuherberg 85764, Germany. scientific.director@dife.de.
19
German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Berlin 13357, Germany. scientific.director@dife.de.
20
NutriAct-Competence Cluster Nutrition Research Berlin-Potsdam, Nuthetal 14458, Germany. scientific.director@dife.de.
21
Molecular Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz 78457, Germany. alexander.buerkle@uni-konstanz.de.

Abstract

Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene (r = -0.248), α-tocopherol (r = 0.208), α-carotene (r = -0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.125; all p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with lycopene (-6.5% per five-year age increase) and this association remained in the multiple regression model with the significant predictors (covariables) being country, season, cholesterol, gender, smoking status, body mass index (BMI (kg/m²)), and dietary habits. The positive association of α-tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (-4.8% vs. -3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene.

KEYWORDS:

Europe; age; carotenoids; lycopene; micronutrients; plasma; retinol; tocopherols

PMID:
27706032
PMCID:
PMC5084002
DOI:
10.3390/nu8100614
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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