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Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2017 Mar;20(1):72-78. doi: 10.1038/pcan.2016.47. Epub 2016 Oct 4.

Obesity and prostate cancer-specific mortality after radical prostatectomy: results from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database.

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Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Surgery Section, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.
Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Department of Urology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
Department of Surgery, Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Department of Urology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Department of Urology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Augusta, GA, USA.
Department of Urology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, USA.
Department of Urology, Oregon Health and Science University Hospital, Portland, OR, USA.



At the population level, obesity is associated with prostate cancer (PC) mortality. However, few studies analyzed the associations between obesity and long-term PC-specific outcomes after initial treatment.


We conducted a retrospective analysis of 4268 radical prostatectomy patients within the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database. Cox models accounting for known risk factors were used to examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and PC-specific mortality (PCSM; primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included biochemical recurrence (BCR) and castration-resistant PC (CRPC). BMI was used as a continuous and categorical variable (normal <25 kg/m2, overweight 25-29.9 kg/m2 and obese ⩾30 kg/m2). Median follow-up among all men who were alive at last follow-up was 6.8 years (interquartile range=3.5-11.0). During this time, 1384 men developed BCR, 117 developed CRPC and 84 died from PC. Hazard ratios were analyzed using competing-risks regression analysis accounting for non-PC death as a competing risk.


On crude analysis, higher BMI was not associated with risk of PCSM (P=0.112), BCR (0.259) and CRPC (P=0.277). However, when BMI was categorized, overweight (hazard ratio (HR) 1.99, P=0.034) and obesity (HR 1.97, P=0.048) were significantly associated with PCSM. Obesity and overweight were not associated with BCR or CRPC (all P⩾0.189). On multivariable analysis adjusting for both clinical and pathological features, results were little changed in that obesity (HR=2.05, P=0.039) and overweight (HR=1.88, P=0.061) were associated with higher risk of PCSM, but not with BCR or CRPC (all P⩾0.114) with the exception that the association for overweight was no longer statistical significant.


Overweight and obesity were associated with increased risk of PCSM after radical prostatectomy. If validated in larger studies with longer follow-up, obesity may be established as a potentially modifiable risk factor for PCSM.

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