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Nature. 2016 Oct 27;538(7626):510-513. doi: 10.1038/nature19844. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

Genomic insights into the peopling of the Southwest Pacific.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
2
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
3
Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
4
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo- and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72070, Germany.
5
Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745 Jena, Germany.
6
School of Archaeology and Earth Institute, Belfield, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Dublin, Ireland.
7
Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.
8
School of Archaeology and Anthropology, College of Arts and Social Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia.
9
Vanuatu National Museum, Vanuatu Cultural Centre, Port Vila, Vanuatu.
10
Maison de l'Archéologie et de l'Ethnologie, CNRS, UMR 7041, 92023 Nanterre, France.
11
Department of Archaeology and Natural History, College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia.
12
College of Arts, Society and Education, James Cook University, Queensland 4870, Australia.
13
Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory, University of Waikato, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand.
14
CIAS, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal.
15
Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, IVPP, CAS, Beijing 100044, China.
16
Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig 04103, Germany.
17
Institute for Anthropological Research, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
18
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
19
RIPAS Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam.
20
Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.
21
Independent Scientist, Sharon, Connecticut 06069, USA.
22
Department of Anthropology, Temple University, Gladfelter Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA.
23
Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu, 51010, Estonia.
24
Division of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Street, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK.
25
Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province 441, Papua New Guinea.
26
Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia.
27
Department of Anthropology, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902, USA.
28
Evolutionary Medicine Group, Laboratoire d'Anthropologie Moléculaire et Imagerie de Synthèse UMR 5288 CNRS, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse 31073, France.
29
National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore 169610, Singapore.

Abstract

The appearance of people associated with the Lapita culture in the South Pacific around 3,000 years ago marked the beginning of the last major human dispersal to unpopulated lands. However, the relationship of these pioneers to the long-established Papuan people of the New Guinea region is unclear. Here we present genome-wide ancient DNA data from three individuals from Vanuatu (about 3,100-2,700 years before present) and one from Tonga (about 2,700-2,300 years before present), and analyse them with data from 778 present-day East Asians and Oceanians. Today, indigenous people of the South Pacific harbour a mixture of ancestry from Papuans and a population of East Asian origin that no longer exists in unmixed form, but is a match to the ancient individuals. Most analyses have interpreted the minimum of twenty-five per cent Papuan ancestry in the region today as evidence that the first humans to reach Remote Oceania, including Polynesia, were derived from population mixtures near New Guinea, before their further expansion into Remote Oceania. However, our finding that the ancient individuals had little to no Papuan ancestry implies that later human population movements spread Papuan ancestry through the South Pacific after the first peopling of the islands.

PMID:
27698418
PMCID:
PMC5515717
DOI:
10.1038/nature19844
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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