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Int J Cardiol. 2016 Dec 15;225:23-29. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.09.080. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Life-course risk factor levels and coronary artery calcification. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

Author information

1
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu, 20520 Turku, Finland. Electronic address: olli.hartiala@utu.fi.
2
Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu, 20520 Turku, Finland.
3
Department of Medicine and Division of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu, 20520 Turku, Finland.
4
Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu, 20520 Turku, Finland; Department of Medicine and Division of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu, 20520 Turku, Finland.
5
Department of Radiology, University of Tampere School of Medicine and Tampere University Hospital, Teiskontie, 33520 Tampere, Finland.
6
Department of Radiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Puijonlaaksontie, 70210 Kuopio, Finland.
7
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere School of Medicine and Tampere University Hospital, Teiskontie, 33520 Tampere, Finland.
8
Department of Pediatrics, University of Tampere School of Medicine and Tampere University Hospital, Teiskontie, 33520 Tampere, Finland.
9
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Puijonlaaksontie, 70210 Kuopio, Finland.
10
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and University of Tampere School of Medicine, Teiskontie, 33520 Tampere, Finland.
11
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu, 20520 Turku, Finland.
12
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu, 20520 Turku, Finland; Department of Medicine and Division of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu, 20520 Turku, Finland.
13
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu, 20520 Turku, Finland; Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu, 20520 Turku, Finland.
14
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu, 20520 Turku, Finland; Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7005, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Risk factors measured in early life have been shown to predict coronary artery calcium (CAC) in adulthood. However, limited data exist on when risk factor profiles of those who develop CAC diverge from those who do not. We investigated the associations of coronary heart disease risk factor trajectories beginning in adolescence and CAC measured at middle-age.

METHODS:

CAC was measured among 589 participants aged 39-45years in whom cardiovascular risk factors (serum lipids, blood pressure, body mass index, physical activity, smoking habits, and fruit, vegetable, fish, and butter intake) had been collected in 1980, 1983, 1986, 2001, and 2007 as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

RESULTS:

Mean levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels across the 27-year period were significantly higher among those with CAC vs. those without. The difference between the groups was 0.25mmol/l (95% confidence interval, 95%CI, 0.079-0.41) for LDL-C, 0.26mmol/l (95%CI 0.080-0.44) for total cholesterol, 0.05mmol/l (95%CI 0.0085-0.091) for Apo-B and 1.92mmHg (95%CI 0.10-3.74) for SBP after adjustment for other risk factors. Those with CAC at age 39-45years had higher serum lipid levels already in adolescence or early adulthood compared with those without CAC, with these differences becoming more pronounced during the life-course.

CONCLUSIONS:

Long-time risk factor exposure to higher LDL-C, total cholesterol and Apo-B levels already starting in adolescence and higher SBP levels in adulthood is associated with CAC at middle-age.

KEYWORDS:

Atherosclerosis; Coronary artery calcium; Life-course analysis; Risk factors

PMID:
27697667
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.09.080
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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