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Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Mar;34:77-87. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.09.006. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Dysfunction of the neurovascular unit in ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative diseases: An aging effect.

Author information

1
Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA; Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510630, China; Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders and Recovery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
2
Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA; Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders and Recovery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
3
Department of Anesthesiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127, China; Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders and Recovery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
4
Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA; Department of Anesthesiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127, China; Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders and Recovery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
5
Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510630, China. Electronic address: lzq1828@aliyun.com.
6
Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA; Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders and Recovery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address: chenj2@upmc.edu.

Abstract

Current understanding on the mechanisms of brain injury and neurodegeneration highlights an appreciation of multicellular interactions within the neurovascular unit (NVU), which include the evolution of blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage, neuronal cell death or degeneration, glial reaction, and immune cell infiltration. Aging is an important factor that influences the integrity of the NVU. The age-related physiological or pathological changes in the cellular components of the NVU have been shown to increase the vulnerability of the NVU to ischemia/reperfusion injury or neurodegeneration, and to result in deteriorated brain damage. This review describes the impacts of aging on each NVU component and discusses the mechanisms by which aging increases NVU sensitivity to stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Prophylactic or therapeutic perspectives that may delay or diminish aging and thus prevent the incidence of these neurological disorders will also be reviewed.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Ischemic stroke; Neurodegeneration; Neurovascular unit; Vulnerability

PMID:
27697546
PMCID:
PMC5384332
DOI:
10.1016/j.arr.2016.09.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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