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J Pain Res. 2016 Sep 13;9:653-660. eCollection 2016.

Parecoxib increases muscle pain threshold and relieves shoulder pain after gynecologic laparoscopy: a randomized controlled trial.

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Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou.
Department of Anesthesiology, Shenzhen Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Surgical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.



Postlaparoscopic shoulder pain (PLSP) remains a common problem after laparoscopies. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pressure pain threshold (PPT) of different muscles and PLSP after gynecologic laparoscopy, and to explore the effect of parecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on the changes of PPT.


The patients were randomly allocated into two groups; group P and group C. In group P, parecoxib 40 mg was intravenously infused at 30 minutes before surgery and 8 and 20 hours after surgery. In group C, normal saline was infused at the corresponding time point. PPT assessment was performed 1 day before surgery and at postoperative 24 hours by using a pressure algometer at bilateral shoulder muscles (levator scapulae and supraspinatus) and forearm (flexor carpi ulnaris). Meanwhile, bilateral shoulder pain was evaluated through visual analog scale score at 24 hours after surgery.


Preoperative PPT level of the shoulder, but not of the forearm, was significantly and negatively correlated with the intensity of ipsilateral PLSP. In group C, PPT levels of shoulder muscles, but not of forearm muscles, decreased after laparoscopy at postoperative 24 hours. The use of parecoxib significantly improved the decline of PPT levels of bilateral shoulder muscles (all P<0.01). Meanwhile, parecoxib reduced the incidence of PLSP (group P: 45% vs group C: 83.3%; odds ratio: 0.164; 95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.382; P<0.001) and the intensity of bilateral shoulder pain (both P<0.01).


Preoperative PPT levels of shoulder muscles are closely associated with the severity of shoulder pain after gynecologic laparoscopy. PPT levels of shoulder muscles, but not of forearm muscles, significantly decreased after surgery. Parecoxib improved the decrease of PPT and relieved PLSP.


laparoscopic surgery; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; pain threshold; sensitization; shoulder pain

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