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Nat Immunol. 2016 Dec;17(12):1459-1466. doi: 10.1038/ni.3577. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

Foxp3 and Toll-like receptor signaling balance Treg cell anabolic metabolism for suppression.

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Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt Center for Immunobiology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
Center for Environmental and Systems Biochemistry, Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology and Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Transplantation Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.


CD4+ effector T cells (Teff cells) and regulatory T cells (Treg cells) undergo metabolic reprogramming to support proliferation and immunological function. Although signaling via the lipid kinase PI(3)K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase), the serine-threonine kinase Akt and the metabolic checkpoint kinase complex mTORC1 induces both expression of the glucose transporter Glut1 and aerobic glycolysis for Teff cell proliferation and inflammatory function, the mechanisms that regulate Treg cell metabolism and function remain unclear. We found that Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals that promote Treg cell proliferation increased PI(3)K-Akt-mTORC1 signaling, glycolysis and expression of Glut1. However, TLR-induced mTORC1 signaling also impaired Treg cell suppressive capacity. Conversely, the transcription factor Foxp3 opposed PI(3)K-Akt-mTORC1 signaling to diminish glycolysis and anabolic metabolism while increasing oxidative and catabolic metabolism. Notably, Glut1 expression was sufficient to increase the number of Treg cells, but it reduced their suppressive capacity and Foxp3 expression. Thus, inflammatory signals and Foxp3 balance mTORC1 signaling and glucose metabolism to control the proliferation and suppressive function of Treg cells.

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Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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