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  • PMID: 27694431 was deleted because it is a duplicate of PMID: 28028097
Environ Entomol. 2016 Dec;45(6):1496-1504. doi: 10.1093/ee/nvw135. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Behavior and Survival of the Filth Fly Parasitoids Spalangia endius and Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Response to Three Granular House Fly Baits and Components.

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Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2861 (;
Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2861 (;


Behaviors and mortality of two filth fly parasitoid wasps, Spalangia endius Walker and Urolepis rufipes Ashmead, were tested in response to granular fly baits containing one of the three active ingredients (AI): Golden Malrin (methomyl), QuickBayt (imidacloprid), or Quikstrike (dinotefuran). Behavioral responses to each of the two components of the baits, the AIs and the fly attractant pheromone (Z)-9-tricosene, were also examined independently. Spalangia endius avoided contact with bait granules, regardless of bait type. However, when S. endius contacted bait residue, the imidacloprid bait appeared to be the least harmful of the baits for S. endius, at least in the short term. Spalangia endius was attracted to imidacloprid by itself. However, S. endius avoided (Z)-9-tricosene. In contrast to S. endius' attraction to imidacloprid, S. endius neither avoided nor was attracted to methomyl or dinotefuran. For U. rufipes, the methomyl bait appeared to be especially harmful. Urolepis rufipes avoided bait granules with imidacloprid or dinotefuran but not with methomyl, died quickly in the presence of methomyl bait residue, and had a methomyl LC50 that was lower than that for S. endius The avoidance by U. rufipes of granules with imidacloprid or dinotefuran appears to be related to components other than the AIs or the (Z)-9-tricosene because U. rufipes did not avoid either individually. The behavioral avoidance of the parasitoids in the present study occurred despite no exposure recently, if ever, to these pesticides.


Hymenoptera; IPM; bait, parasitoid; neonicotinoid

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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