Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Occup Med (Lond). 2017 Jan;67(1):64-67. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqw134. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Micro and nanoparticles as possible pathogenetic co-factors in mixed cryoglobulinemia.

Author information

1
Department of Neuroscience, Biomedical and Metabolic Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41125, Italy.
2
Rheumatology Unit, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41124, Italy.
3
Rheumatology Unit, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41124, Italy, gianluca.sighinolfi@gmail.com.
4
Institute for Advanced Sciences Convergence and International Clean Water Institute, Herndon, VA 20171, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) is a rare multisystem disease whose aetiopathogenesis is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may have a causative role, and genetic and/or environmental factors may also contribute.

AIMS:

To investigate the presence and possible role of environmental agents in MC.

METHODS:

We recruited 30 HCV-infected MC patients with different clinical manifestations and a control group of 30 healthy, sex-/age-matched volunteers. We collected serum samples from each patient and incubated at 4°C for 7 days to obtain cryoprecipitate samples. We used environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis to verify the presence of microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) in serum and cryoprecipitate samples. We evaluated environmental exposure using a medical and occupational history questionnaire for each subject.

RESULTS:

MC patients had a significantly higher risk of occupational exposure (OR 5.6; 95% CI 1.84-17.50) than controls. ESEM evaluation revealed a significantly higher concentration, expressed as number of positive spots (NS), of serum inorganic particles in MC patients compared with controls (mean NS 18, SD = 16 versus NS 5.4, SD = 5.1; P < 0.05). Cryoprecipitate samples of MC patients showed high concentrations of inorganic particles (mean NS 49, SD = 19). We found a strong correlation between NS and cryocrit (i.e. percentage of cryoprecipitate/total serum after centrifugation at 4°C) levels (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

In addition to HCV infection, MPs and NPs might play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of MC.

KEYWORDS:

Aetiopathogenesis; HCV; cryoglobulinemic vasculitis; microparticles; nanoparticles.

PMID:
27694373
DOI:
10.1093/occmed/kqw134
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center