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Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Mar;34:15-29. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.09.007. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

The impact of cerebrovascular aging on vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders and Recovery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
2
Department of Neurology, Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders and Recovery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Department of Neurology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese, Shanghai 200437, China.
3
Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mylan School of Pharmacy, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA.
4
Department of Neurology, Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders and Recovery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Key Lab of Cerebral Microcirculation in Universities of Shandong, Taishan Medical University, Taian, Shandong, 271000, China. Electronic address: zhanfx2@upmc.edu.

Abstract

As human life expectancy rises, the aged population will increase. Aging is accompanied by changes in tissue structure, often resulting in functional decline. For example, aging within blood vessels contributes to a decrease in blood flow to important organs, potentially leading to organ atrophy and loss of function. In the central nervous system, cerebral vascular aging can lead to loss of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, eventually resulting in cognitive and sensorimotor decline. One of the major of types of cognitive dysfunction due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). In spite of recent progress in clinical and experimental VCID research, our understanding of vascular contributions to the pathogenesis of VCID is still very limited. In this review, we summarize recent findings on VCID, with a focus on vascular age-related pathologies and their contribution to the development of this condition.

KEYWORDS:

Blood-brain barrier; Hypoperfusion; Vascular aging; White matter

PMID:
27693240
PMCID:
PMC5250548
DOI:
10.1016/j.arr.2016.09.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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