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Lancet Haematol. 2016 Oct;3(10):e480-e488. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3026(16)30111-9.

Management and outcomes of vaginal bleeding and heavy menstrual bleeding in women of reproductive age on direct oral anti-factor Xa inhibitor therapy: a case series.

Author information

1
Center for Vascular Medicine and Department of Medicine III, Division of Angiology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Thrombosis and Haemostasis, King's College London, London, UK. Electronic address: jan.beyer@uniklinikum-dresden.de.
2
Center for Vascular Medicine and Department of Medicine III, Division of Angiology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Observational data and results from post-hoc analyses in clinical trials suggest that direct oral factor Xa inhibitors might increase menstrual bleeding intensity in women of reproductive age, but the extent of this effect is unknown. We aimed to investigate the management and outcomes of vaginal bleeding complications during therapy with direct oral factor Xa inhibitors in a case series of women of reproductive age.

METHODS:

To identify individuals for inclusion in this case series, we searched two sources of prospectively collected data from women of reproductive age treated with direct oral factor Xa inhibitors: the non-interventional Dresden NOAC Registry (NCT01588119), which is based in the administrative district of Dresden (Saxony, Germany), and all locally archived data from phase 3 trials of direct oral factor Xa inhibitors done at University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden. Vaginal bleeding events were defined as any vaginal bleeding complications as reported by the patient. We collected data on type and dosage of anticoagulation; suspected or confirmed bleeding events, hospital admissions, and mortality; and pattern and management of vaginal bleeding events. For all cases of bleeding identified, we reviewed all available source data to identify examination results suggesting potential underlying anatomical causes of bleeding.

FINDINGS:

We identified 178 women of reproductive age who received direct oral factor Xa inhibitor therapy, of whom 57 had vaginal bleeding events, including 50 who received rivaroxaban, six who received apixaban, and one who received edoxaban. These 57 women had 72 vaginal bleeding events, including 59 cases of heavy menstrual bleeding and 13 bleeding events unrelated to the menstrual cycle. 51 (86%) of these heavy menstrual bleeding events (two major bleeding events, 17 clinically relevant non-major bleeding events, 32 minor bleeding events) were treated conservatively (eg, change of oral hormone therapy or reduction, temporary interruption, or discontinuation of direct oral factor Xa inhibitor) and the remaining eight (14%) events (three major bleeding events and five clinically relevant non-major bleeding events) required elective surgical or interventional treatment (hysterectomy, curettage, ovary excision, or excision of ovarian cysts). Of the 57 women, 13 (23%) had a second bleeding event and two (4%) had a third event. Nine patients had underlying anatomical abnormalities; compared with patients without abnormalities, these patients had more intense bleeding, more had recurrent bleeding (five [56%] of nine patients with abnormalities vs eight [17%] of 48 patients without abnormalities), and more needed surgical treatment for bleeding (eight [89%] of nine vs zero of 48).

INTERPRETATION:

Vaginal bleeding, particularly heavy menstrual bleeding, is a common complication in women of reproductive age on direct oral factor Xa inhibitor therapy. Most cases can be treated conservatively, but patients with severe or recurrent vaginal bleeding complications should be assessed for underlying anatomical abnormalities, which might require surgical or interventional treatment. Further data are needed to provide guidance on prevention and treatment of vaginal bleeding complications in this patient population.

FUNDING:

None.

PMID:
27692306
DOI:
10.1016/S2352-3026(16)30111-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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