Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Chemistry. 2016 Nov 2;22(45):16157-16164. doi: 10.1002/chem.201603521. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Coordination-Driven Self-Assembly and Anticancer Potency Studies of Ruthenium-Cobalt-Based Heterometallic Rectangles.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, 44610, Republic of Korea.
2
Department of Oriental Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea.
3
Energy Materials Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, 34129, Republic of Korea. hyunuk@kier.re.kr.
4
Department of Oriental Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea. sckang@khu.ac.kr.
5
Department of Chemistry, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, 44610, Republic of Korea. kwchi@ulsan.ac.kr.

Abstract

Three new cobalt-ruthenium heterometallic molecular rectangles, 1-3, were synthesized through the coordination-driven self-assembly of a new cobalt sandwich donor, (η5 -Cp)Co[C4 -trans-Ph2 (4-Py)2 ] (L; Cp: cyclopentyl; Py: pyridine), and one of three dinuclear precursors, [(p-cymene)2 Ru2 (OO∩OO)2 Cl2 ] [OO∩OO: oxalato (A1 ), 5,8-dioxido-1,4-naphthoquinone (A2 ), or 6,11-dioxido-5,12-naphthacenedione (A3 )]. All of the self-assembled architectures were isolated in very good yield (92-94 %) and were fully characterized by spectroscopic analysis; the molecular structures of 2 and 3 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The anticancer activities of bimetallic rectangles 1-3 were evaluated with a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, an autophagy assay, and Western blotting. Rectangles 1-3 showed higher cytotoxicity than doxorubicin in AGS human gastric carcinoma cells. In addition, the autophagic activities and apoptotic cell death ratios were increased in AGS cells by treatment with 1-3; the rectangles induced autophagosome formation by promoting LC3-I to LC3-II conversion and apoptotic cell death by increasing caspase-3/7 activity. Our results suggest that rectangles 1-3 induce gastric cancer cell death by modulating autophagy and apoptosis and that they have potential use as agents for the treatment of human gastric cancer.

KEYWORDS:

antitumor agents; cobalt; metallacycles; ruthenium; self-assembly

PMID:
27689935
DOI:
10.1002/chem.201603521

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center