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Heart Rhythm. 2017 Feb;14(2):240-247. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2016.09.025. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Hemodynamic effects of sustained postoperative cardiac resynchronization therapy in infants after repair of congenital heart disease: Results of a randomized clinical trial.

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Labatt Family Heart Center, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
Labatt Family Heart Center, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.



It is unknown whether continuous cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can lead to sustained improvement in hemodynamics after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD).


We investigated whether CRT improves cardiac index (CI) and blood pressure in infants after biventricular repair of CHD.


We randomized infants younger than 4 months after biventricular CHD surgery to standard care or standard care plus CRT for 48 hours or until extubation if sooner. Change in the primary outcome of CI and blood pressure over time was compared between groups. For subgroup analysis, QRS duration was considered prolonged if greater than the 98th percentile.


Forty-two patients were randomized: 21 controls and 21 patients receiving CRT (median weight 4 kg). There were no identified adverse events from pacing. The change in CI over time was not different between patients receiving CRT and controls, but trended toward improvement in patients with wide QRS who received CRT (n = 9) vs controls with wide QRS (n = 8) (+1.65 (0.86) L/(min·m2); P = .06). Controls with wide QRS experienced the smallest increase in CI (0.33 L/(min·m2)). Blood pressure was significantly higher in infants with wide QRS who received CRT than in controls (+7.14 (3.08) mm Hg; P = .02). Serum lactate level, catecholamine use, ventilation time, and length of intensive care unit stay were similar between the 2 groups.


CRT improved blood pressure and a trend toward higher CI in infants after repair of biventricular CHD with prolonged QRS duration. These findings warrant further study of CRT to improve postoperative recovery in infants with electrical dyssynchrony.


Cardiac resynchronization therapy; Congenital heart disease; Hemodynamics; Intensive care; Pediatrics

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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