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EJIFCC. 2016 Aug 1;27(3):224-37. eCollection 2016 Aug.

Soluble ST2 and Galectin-3: What We Know and Don't Know Analytically.

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Department of Laboratory Medicine, Konventhospital Barmherzige Brueder , Linz, Austria.


The proteins soluble ST2 (sST2) and galectin-3 are currently gaining mounting interest as candidate biomarkers in cardiac disease. Both, sST2 and galectin-3 have been included in the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for additive risk stratification of patients with acute and chronic heart failure. The aim of this review is to provide information on analytical considerations of measuring circulating sST2 and galectin-3 including knowledge on in vitro stability, biological variation and reference ranges of both analytes.


biomarkers; cardiac disease; cardiovascular disease; galectins; heart failure; infection; inflammation; interleukin-1 receptor family; interleukin-33; suppression of tumorigenicity 2; transforming growth factor beta superfamily


Conflict of interest statement

Financial & competing interests disclosure: Dr. Mueller and Dr. Dieplinger declared no competing interests.

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