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Brain. 2016 Nov 1;139(11):3022-3040. doi: 10.1093/brain/aww231.

Your perspective and my benefit: multiple lesion models of self-other integration strategies during social bargaining.

Author information

Laboratory of Experimental Psychology and Neuroscience (LPEN), Institute of Cognitive and Translational Neuroscience (INCyT), INECO Foundation, Favaloro University, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
División de Neurociencia, Centro de Investigación en Complejidad Social (CICS), Facultad de Gobierno, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile.
Instituto de Ingeniería Biomédica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Gerosciences Center for Brain Health and Metabolism, Santiago, Chile.
Center for Social and Cognitive Neuroscience (CSCN), School of Psychology, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Santiago, Chile.
Memory and Balance Clinic, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
National University of La Plata, Physics Institute, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET) La Plata, 1900, Argentina.
Physics Department, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
Physiopathology Department, ICBM y East Neuroscience Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Cognitive Neurology and Dementia, Neurology Department, Hospital del Salvador, Santiago, Chile.
Centre for Advanced Research in Education, Santiago, Chile.
Neurology Department, Clínica Alemana, Santiago, Chile.
Integrative Neuroscience Laboratory, IFIBA, CONICET and Physics Department, FCEyN, UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Universidad Torcuato di Tella, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Faculty of Elementary and Special Education (FEEyE), National University of Cuyo (UNCuyo), Mendoza, Argentina.
Universidad Autónoma del Caribe, Barranquilla, Colombia.
Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Australian Research Council (ACR), Sydney, Australia.


Recursive social decision-making requires the use of flexible, context-sensitive long-term strategies for negotiation. To succeed in social bargaining, participants' own perspectives must be dynamically integrated with those of interactors to maximize self-benefits and adapt to the other's preferences, respectively. This is a prerequisite to develop a successful long-term self-other integration strategy. While such form of strategic interaction is critical to social decision-making, little is known about its neurocognitive correlates. To bridge this gap, we analysed social bargaining behaviour in relation to its structural neural correlates, ongoing brain dynamics (oscillations and related source space), and functional connectivity signatures in healthy subjects and patients offering contrastive lesion models of neurodegeneration and focal stroke: behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and frontal lesions. All groups showed preserved basic bargaining indexes. However, impaired self-other integration strategy was found in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and frontal lesions, suggesting that social bargaining critically depends on the integrity of prefrontal regions. Also, associations between behavioural performance and data from voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping revealed a critical role of prefrontal regions in value integration and strategic decisions for self-other integration strategy. Furthermore, as shown by measures of brain dynamics and related sources during the task, the self-other integration strategy was predicted by brain anticipatory activity (alpha/beta oscillations with sources in frontotemporal regions) associated with expectations about others' decisions. This pattern was reduced in all clinical groups, with greater impairments in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and frontal lesions than Alzheimer's disease. Finally, connectivity analysis from functional magnetic resonance imaging evidenced a fronto-temporo-parietal network involved in successful self-other integration strategy, with selective compromise of long-distance connections in frontal disorders. In sum, this work provides unprecedented evidence of convergent behavioural and neurocognitive signatures of strategic social bargaining in different lesion models. Our findings offer new insights into the critical roles of prefrontal hubs and associated temporo-parietal networks for strategic social negotiation.


lesion model; neurodegeneration; self-other strategy; social bargaining; social decision-making

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