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Pain Physician. 2016 Sep-Oct;19(7):415-27.

Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

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1
University of Auckland Epidemiology and Biostatistics New Zealand.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is conflicting evidence from previous qualitative reviews on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on pain.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine with quantitative methods if vitamin D supplementation lowers pain levels.

STUDY DESIGN:

Quantitative meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

SETTING:

This meta-analysis examined all studies involving the effect of vitamin D supplementation on pain score.

METHOD:

Electronic sources (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, clinical trials website, and Google scholar) were systematically searched for RCTs of vitamin D supplementation and pain from inception of each database to October 2015.

RESULTS:

Nineteen RCTs with 3,436 participants (1,780 on vitamin D supplementation and 1,656 on placebo) were included in the meta-analysis. For the primary outcome (mean change in pain score from baseline to final follow-up), 8 trials with 1,222 participants on vitamin D and 1,235 on placebo reported a significantly greater mean decrease in pain score for the vitamin D group compared to placebo (mean difference -0.57, 95% CI: -1.00 to -0.15, P = 0.007). The effect from vitamin D was greater in patients recruited with pre-existing pain (P-value for interaction = 0.03). Fourteen studies (1,548 on vitamin D, 1,430 on placebo) reported the mean pain score at final follow-up outcome, and no statistical difference was observed (mean difference -0.06, 95%CI: -0.44 to 0.33, P = 0.78). In 4 studies which reported pain improvement (209 on vitamin D, 146 on placebo), the effect size although not significant, shows participants in the vitamin D supplementation group were more likely to report pain improvement compared with the placebo group (relative risk 1.38, 95%CI: 0.93 to 2.05, P = 0.11).

LIMITATIONS:

Only a few studies reported the mean score change from baseline to final follow-up, and we do not have enough data to determine any modifying effect of baseline vitamin D status and different doses of vitamin D supplementation on pain.

CONCLUSION:

A significantly greater mean decrease in pain score (primary outcome) was observed with vitamin D supplementation compared with placebo in people with chronic pain. These results suggest that vitamin D supplementation could have a role in the management of chronic pain.

KEY WORDS:

Meta-analysis, pain, randomized controlled trials, vitamin D supplementation.

PMID:
27676659
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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