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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Dec;101(12):4931-4937. Epub 2016 Sep 27.

Autoimmune Diseases in Children and Adults With Type 1 Diabetes From the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry.

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Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine (J.W.H., J.B.M.), St Louis, Missouri 63110; Jaeb Center for Health Research (T.D.R., K.M.M.), Tampa, Florida 33647; Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine (L.A.D.), Indianapolis, Indiana 46202; and Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine (M.R.R.) University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104.



Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with other autoimmune diseases (AIDs), but the prevalence and associated predictive factors for these comorbidities of T1D across all age groups have not been fully characterized.


Data obtained from 25 759 participants with T1D enrolled in the T1D Exchange Registry were used to analyze the types and frequency of AIDs as well as their relationships to gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Diagnoses of autoimmune diseases, represented as ordinal categories (0, 1, 2, 3, or more AIDs) were obtained from medical records of Exchange Registry participants.


Among the 25 759 T1D Exchange participants, 50% were female, 82% non-Hispanic white, mean age was 23.0 ± 16.9 years and mean duration of diabetes was 11 years. Of these participants, 6876 (27%) were diagnosed with at least one AID. Frequency of two or more AIDs increased from 4.3% in participants aged younger than 13 years to 10.4% in those aged 50 years or older. The most common AIDs were thyroid (6097, 24%), gastrointestinal (1530, 6%), and collagen vascular diseases (432, 2%). Addison's disease was rare (75, 0.3%). The prevalence of one or more AIDs was increased in females and non-Hispanic whites and with older age.


In the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry, a diagnosis of one or more AIDs in addition to T1D is common, particularly in women, non-Hispanic whites, and older individuals. Results of this study have implications for both primary care and endocrine practice and will allow clinicians to better anticipate and manage the additional AIDs that develop in patients with T1D.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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