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Environ Int. 2016 Dec;97:212-236. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.09.013. Epub 2016 Sep 24.

A global assessment of phthalates burden and related links to health effects.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, and Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, FORTH-IESL, GR-71003 Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Heraklion, GR-71003 Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
3
Center of Toxicology Science and Research, Medical School, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
4
Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, GR-81100 Mytilene, Greece.
5
Center of Toxicology Science and Research, Medical School, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Electronic address: tsatsaka@uoc.gr.

Abstract

Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which are used in industry as plasticizers and additives in cosmetics. They are classified as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) which impair the human endocrine system inducing fertility problems, respiratory diseases, childhood obesity and neuropsychological disorders. The aim of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on the toxicity that phthalates pose in humans based on human biomonitoring studies conducted over the last decade. Except for conventional biological matrices (such as urine and serum), amniotic fluid, human milk, semen, saliva, sweat, meconium and human hair are also employed for the estimation of exposure and distribution of pollutants in the human body, although data are not enough yet. Children are highly exposed to phthalates relative to adults and in most studies children's daily intake surpasses the maximum reference dose (RfD) set from US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). However, the global trend is that human exposure to phthalates is decreasing annually as a result of the strict regulations applied to phthalates.

KEYWORDS:

Biomonitoring; Health effects; Long-term exposure; Phthalates; Toxicity

PMID:
27669632
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2016.09.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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