Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Brain Sci. 2016 Sep 23;6(4). pii: E41. doi: 10.3390/brainsci6040041.

Immunomodulators as Therapeutic Agents in Mitigating the Progression of Parkinson's Disease.

Author information

1
Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. bgrimmig@health.usf.edu.
2
Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40508, USA. josh.morganti@uky.edu.
3
Byrd Alzheimer's Institute, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33613, USA. Knash@health.usf.edu.
4
Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. pbickfor@health.usf.edu.
5
James A Haley VA Hospital, 13000 Bruce B Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. pbickfor@health.usf.edu.

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that primarily afflicts the elderly. It is characterized by motor dysfunction due to extensive neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. There are multiple biological processes that are negatively impacted during the pathogenesis of PD, and are implicated in the cell death in this region. Neuroinflammation is evidently involved in PD pathology and mitigating the inflammatory cascade has been a therapeutic strategy. Age is the number one risk factor for PD and thus needs to be considered in the context of disease pathology. Here, we discuss the role of neuroinflammation within the context of aging as it applies to the development of PD, and the potential for two representative compounds, fractalkine and astaxanthin, to attenuate the pathophysiology that modulates neurodegeneration that occurs in Parkinson's disease.

KEYWORDS:

Parkinson’s disease; astaxanthin; fractalkine; microglia; neuroinflammation

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.

Publication type

Publication type

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center