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Nat Microbiol. 2016 Sep 26;1:16176. doi: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.176.

Co-transfer of blaNDM-5 and mcr-1 by an IncX3-X4 hybrid plasmid in Escherichia coli.

Sun J1,2, Yang RS1,2, Zhang Q3, Feng Y4, Fang LX1,2, Xia J1,2, Li L1,2, Lv XY1,2, Duan JH1,2, Liao XP1,2, Liu YH1,2,5.

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National Risk Assessment Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance of Animal Original Bacteria, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.
College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA.
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang 310027, China.
Jiangsu Co-Innovation Centre for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China.


Carbapenem and colistin are the last-resort antibiotics used for treating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Here, we report, for the first time, co-transfer of resistance to both classes of antibiotics by a mobile IncX3-X4 hybrid plasmid in an Escherichia coli isolate. Spread of such a plasmid is of great concern for clinical therapy, and heightened efforts are needed to control its dissemination.

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