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J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2016;19(7):305-343. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Attention Restoration Theory: A systematic review of the attention restoration potential of exposure to natural environments.

Author information

1
a European Centre for Environment and Human Health , University of Exeter Medical School, Truro Campus, and Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital , Truro , Cornwall , United Kingdom.
2
b NIHR CLAHRC South West Peninsula , University of Exeter Medical School, South Cloisters, St Luke's Campus , Exeter , Devon , United Kingdom.

Abstract

Attention Restoration Theory (ART) suggests the ability to concentrate may be restored by exposure to natural environments. Although widely cited, it is unclear as to the quantity of empirical evidence that supports this. A systematic review regarding the impact of exposure to natural environments on attention was conducted. Seven electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if (1) they were natural experiments, randomized investigations, or recorded "before and after" measurements; (2) compared natural and nonnatural/other settings; and (3) used objective measures of attention. Screening of articles for inclusion, data extraction, and quality appraisal were performed by one reviewer and checked by another. Where possible, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool effect sizes. Thirty-one studies were included. Meta-analyses provided some support for ART, with significant positive effects of exposure to natural environments for three measures (Digit Span Forward, Digit Span Backward, and Trail Making Test B). The remaining 10 meta-analyses did not show marked beneficial effects. Meta-analysis was limited by small numbers of investigations, small samples, heterogeneity in reporting of study quality indicators, and heterogeneity of outcomes. This review highlights the diversity of evidence around ART in terms of populations, study design, and outcomes. There is uncertainty regarding which aspects of attention may be affected by exposure to natural environments.

PMID:
27668460
DOI:
10.1080/10937404.2016.1196155
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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