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Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2017 Jan;106:73-85. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.09.020. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

Range size heritability and diversification patterns in the liverwort genus Radula.

Author information

1
Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group, Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiología (IPNA-CSIC), Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 3, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands 38206, Spain; Department of Biology, Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Botany, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; Azorean Biodiversity Group (GBA, CITA-A) and Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research & Sustainability (PEERS), Universidade dos Açores, Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira, Açores, Portugal. Electronic address: jpatino.llorente@gmail.com.
2
Bryology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China.
3
National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.
4
Département de Systématique et Evolution, Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.
5
ScienceLifeLab, Stockholm University, Solna, Sweden.
6
Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
7
Department of Biology, Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Botany, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; Azorean Biodiversity Group (GBA, CITA-A) and Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research & Sustainability (PEERS), Universidade dos Açores, Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira, Açores, Portugal.

Abstract

Why some species exhibit larger geographical ranges than others, and to what extent does variation in range size affect diversification rates, remains a fundamental, but largely unanswered question in ecology and evolution. Here, we implement phylogenetic comparative analyses and ancestral area estimations in Radula, a liverwort genus of Cretaceous origin, to investigate the mechanisms that explain differences in geographical range size and diversification rates among lineages. Range size was phylogenetically constrained in the two sub-genera characterized by their almost complete Australasian and Neotropical endemicity, respectively. The congruence between the divergence time of these lineages and continental split suggests that plate tectonics could have played a major role in their present distribution, suggesting that a strong imprint of vicariance can still be found in extant distribution patterns in these highly mobile organisms. Amentuloradula, Volutoradula and Metaradula species did not appear to exhibit losses of dispersal capacities in terms of dispersal life-history traits, but evidence for significant phylogenetic signal in macroecological niche traits suggests that niche conservatism accounts for their restricted geographic ranges. Despite their greatly restricted distribution to Australasia and Neotropics respectively, Amentuloradula and Volutoradula did not exhibit significantly lower diversification rates than more widespread lineages, in contrast with the hypothesis that the probability of speciation increases with range size by promoting geographic isolation and increasing the rate at which novel habitats are encountered. We suggest that stochastic long-distance dispersal events may balance allele frequencies across large spatial scales, leading to low genetic structure among geographically distant areas or even continents, ultimately decreasing the diversification rates in highly mobile, widespread lineages.

KEYWORDS:

Diversification rates; Liverworts; Long-distance dispersal; Niche conservatism; Radula; Range size

PMID:
27664347
DOI:
10.1016/j.ympev.2016.09.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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