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Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017 Jan;234(1):53-62. doi: 10.1007/s00213-016-4435-2. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Electro-physiological changes in the brain induced by caffeine or glucose nasal spray.

Author information

1
Research Group Human Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Physical Therapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels, Belgium.
2
Fund for Scientific Research Flanders (FWO), Brussels, Belgium.
3
Institute for Kinesiology Research, Science and Research Centre of Koper, University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia.
4
Research Group Human Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Physical Therapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels, Belgium. rmeeusen@vub.ac.be.
5
School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia. rmeeusen@vub.ac.be.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

A direct link between the mouth cavity and the brain for glucose (GLUC) and caffeine (CAF) has been established. The aim of this study is to determine whether a direct link for both substrates also exist between the nasal cavity and the brain.

METHODS:

Ten healthy male subjects (age 22 ± 1 years) performed three experimental trials, separated by at least 2 days. Each trial included a 20-s nasal spray (NAS) period in which solutions placebo (PLAC), GLUC, or CAF were provided in a double-blind, randomized order. During each trial, four cognitive Stroop tasks were performed: two familiarization trials and one pre- and one post-NAS trial. Reaction times and accuracy for different stimuli (neutral, NEUTR; congruent, CON; incongruent INCON) were determined. Electroencephalography was continuously measured throughout the trials. During the Stroop tasks pre- and post-NAS, the P300 was assessed and during NAS, source localization was performed using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

NAS activated the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). CAF-NAS also increased θ and β activity in frontal cortices. Furthermore, GLUC-NAS increased the β activity within the insula. GLUC-NAS also increased the P300 amplitude with INCON (P = 0.046) and reduced P300 amplitude at F3-F4 and P300 latency at CP1-CP2-Cz with NEUTR (P = 0.001 and P = 0.016, respectively). The existence of nasal bitter and sweet taste receptors possibly induce these brain responses.

CONCLUSION:

Greater cognitive efficiency was observed with GLUC-NAS. CAF-NAS activated cingulate, insular, and sensorymotor cortices, whereas GLUC-NAS activated sensory, cingulate, and insular cortices. However, no effect on the Stroop task was found.

KEYWORDS:

Attention; EEG; ERP P300; Source localization; Stroop; sLORETA

PMID:
27664111
DOI:
10.1007/s00213-016-4435-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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