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Cancer Discov. 2016 Dec;6(12):1382-1399. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Improved Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Compared to Adjuvant Immunotherapy to Eradicate Metastatic Disease.

Author information

1
Cancer Immunoregulation and Immunotherapy Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia.
2
Immunology in Cancer and Infection Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia.
3
School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, Australia.
4
Division of Cell Biology, Biomedical Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
5
Cancer Immunoregulation and Immunotherapy Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia. michele.teng@qimrberghofer.edu.au.

Abstract

Immunotherapy has recently entered a renaissance phase with the approval of multiple agents for the treatment of cancer. Immunotherapy stands ready to join traditional modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and hormone therapy, as a pillar of cancer treatment. Although immunotherapy has begun to have success in advanced cancer treatment, its scheduling and efficacy with surgery to treat earlier stages of cancer and prevent distant metastases have not been systematically examined. Here, we have used two models of spontaneously metastatic breast cancers in mice to illustrate the significantly greater therapeutic power of neoadjuvant, compared with adjuvant, immunotherapies in the context of primary tumor resection. Elevated and sustained peripheral tumor-specific immune responses underpinned the outcome, and blood sampling of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells immediately prior to and post surgery may provide a predictor of outcome. These data now provide a strong rationale to extensively test and compare neoadjuvant immunotherapy in humans.

SIGNIFICANCE:

We demonstrate the significantly greater therapeutic efficacy of neoadjuvant, compared with adjuvant, immunotherapies to eradicate distant metastases following primary tumor resection. Elevated and sustained peripheral tumor-specific immune responses underpinned the outcome, and blood sampling of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells immediately prior to and post surgery may provide a predictor of outcome. Cancer Discov; 6(12); 1382-99. ©2016 AACR.See related commentary by Melero et al., p. 1312This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1293.

PMID:
27663893
DOI:
10.1158/2159-8290.CD-16-0577
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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