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J Cell Physiol. 2017 Jul;232(7):1746-1753. doi: 10.1002/jcp.25614. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Differences in Activation of HIV-1 Replication by Superinfection With HIV-1 and HIV-2 in U1 Cells.

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Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland.


Macrophages contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis by forming a viral reservoir that serve as a viral source for the infection of CD4 T cells. The relationship between HIV-1 latent infection and superinfection in macrophages has not been well studied. Using susceptible U1 cells chronically infected with HIV-1, we studied the effects of HIV superinfection on latency and differences in superinfection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in macrophages. We found that HIV-1 (MN) superinfection displayed increased HIV-1 replication in a time-dependent manner; while cells infected with HIV-2 (Rod) initially showed increased HIV-1 replication, followed by a decrease in HIV-1 RNA production. HIV-1 superinfection upregulated/activated NF-ĸB, NFAT, AP-1, SP-1, and MAPK Erk through expression/activation of molecules, CD4, CD3, TCRβ, Zap-70, PLCγ1, and PKCΘ in T cell receptor-related signaling pathways; while HIV-2 superinfection initially increased expression/activation of these molecules followed by decreased protein expression/activation. HIV superinfection initially downregulated HDAC1 and upregulated acetyl-histone H3 and histone H3 (K4), while HIV-2 superinfection demonstrated an increase in HDAC1 and a decrease in acetyl-histone H3 and histone H3 (K4) relative to HIV-1 superinfection. U1 cells superinfected with HIV-1 or HIV-2 showed differential expression of proteins, IL-2, PARP-1, YB-1, and LysRS. These findings indicate that superinfection with HIV-1 or HIV-2 has different effects on reactivation of HIV-1 replication. HIV-1 superinfection with high load of viral replication may result in high levels of cytotoxicity relative to HIV-2 superinfection. Cells infected with HIV-2 showed lower level of HIV-1 replication, suggesting that co-infection with HIV-2 may result in slower progression toward AIDS. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1746-1753, 2017.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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