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J Orthop Trauma. 2016 Oct;30 Suppl 3:S27-S30.

Heterotopic Ossification: A Review of Current Understanding, Treatment, and Future.

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*The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; †The Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham, United Kingdom; ‡Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA; §Orthopaedic Surgery Service, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences-Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Bethesda, MD; and ‖Regenerative Medicine Department, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD.


Heterotopic ossification is the formation of bone at extraskeletal sites. The incidence of heterotopic ossification in military amputees from recent operations in Iraq and Afghanistan has been demonstrated to be as high as 65%. Heterotopic ossification poses problems to wound healing, rehabilitation, and prosthetic fitting. This article details the current evidence regarding its etiology, prevention, management, and research strategies.

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