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Mol Neurobiol. 2017 Oct;54(8):5855-5867. doi: 10.1007/s12035-016-0118-6. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Role of Autophagy in HIV Pathogenesis and Drug Abuse.

Author information

1
Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2464 Charlotte Street, Kansas City, MO, 64108, USA.
2
Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, 64108, USA.
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA. ksantosh@uthsc.edu.
4
Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2464 Charlotte Street, Kansas City, MO, 64108, USA. kumaran@umkc.edu.

Abstract

Autophagy is a highly regulated process in which excessive cytoplasmic materials are captured and degraded during deprivation conditions. The unique nature of autophagy that clears invasive microorganisms has made it an important cellular defense mechanism in a variety of clinical situations. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that autophagy is extensively involved in the pathology of HIV-1. To ensure survival of the virus, HIV-1 viral proteins modulate and utilize the autophagy pathway so that biosynthesis of the virus is maximized. At the same time, the abuse of illicit drugs such as methamphetamine, cocaine, morphine, and alcohol is thought to be a significant risk factor for the acquirement and progression of HIV-1. During drug-induced toxicity, autophagic activity has been proved to be altered in various cell types. Here, we review the current literature on the interaction between autophagy, HIV-1, and drug abuse and discuss the complex role of autophagy during HIV-1 pathogenesis in co-exposure to illicit drugs.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; Autophagy; HIV-1; Methamphetamine; Morphine

PMID:
27660273
PMCID:
PMC5362350
DOI:
10.1007/s12035-016-0118-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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