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Genome Biol. 2016 Sep 22;17(1):192. doi: 10.1186/s13059-016-1049-2.

The whole genome sequence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), reveals insights into the biology and adaptive evolution of a highly invasive pest species.

Author information

1
Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia.
2
Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Institute for Insect Biotechnology, 35394, Giessen, Germany.
3
Department of Biological Sciences, Cal Poly Pomona, Pomona, CA, 91768, USA.
4
Department of Entomology and Center for Disease Vector Research, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.
5
Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Genetics, Genomics & Bioinformatics, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.
6
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 45221, USA.
7
Insect Pest Control Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Seibersdorf, Vienna, Austria.
8
Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, Agrinio, Greece.
9
Department of Environmental Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
10
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
11
National Agricultural Library, USDA, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.
12
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach-Institut für Zoologie und Anthropologie, 37077, Göttingen, Germany.
13
Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 14627, USA.
14
Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.
15
Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, 27100, Pavia, Italy.
16
USDA-ARS, Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, Hilo, HI, 96720, USA.
17
DIANA-Lab, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Thessaly, 382 21 Volos, Greece and Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 11521, Athens, Greece.
18
Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.
19
Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, 48309, USA.
20
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.
21
Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, 80126, Naples, Italy.
22
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
23
Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Biomedical Sciences Research Centre "Alexander Fleming", Vari, Greece.
24
Department of Biology, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.
25
USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, 1700 S.W. 23rd Drive, Gainesville, FL, 32608, USA. al.handler@ars.usda.gov.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a major destructive insect pest due to its broad host range, which includes hundreds of fruits and vegetables. It exhibits a unique ability to invade and adapt to ecological niches throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, though medfly infestations have been prevented and controlled by the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of integrated pest management programs (IPMs). The genetic analysis and manipulation of medfly has been subject to intensive study in an effort to improve SIT efficacy and other aspects of IPM control.

RESULTS:

The 479 Mb medfly genome is sequenced from adult flies from lines inbred for 20 generations. A high-quality assembly is achieved having a contig N50 of 45.7 kb and scaffold N50 of 4.06 Mb. In-depth curation of more than 1800 messenger RNAs shows specific gene expansions that can be related to invasiveness and host adaptation, including gene families for chemoreception, toxin and insecticide metabolism, cuticle proteins, opsins, and aquaporins. We identify genes relevant to IPM control, including those required to improve SIT.

CONCLUSIONS:

The medfly genome sequence provides critical insights into the biology of one of the most serious and widespread agricultural pests. This knowledge should significantly advance the means of controlling the size and invasive potential of medfly populations. Its close relationship to Drosophila, and other insect species important to agriculture and human health, will further comparative functional and structural studies of insect genomes that should broaden our understanding of gene family evolution.

KEYWORDS:

Chromosomal synteny; Gene family evolution; Insect adaptation; Insect invasiveness; Insect orthology; Medfly genome; Medfly integrated pest management (IPM); Tephritid genomics

PMID:
27659211
PMCID:
PMC5034548
DOI:
10.1186/s13059-016-1049-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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