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Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Jan;42(2):386-396. doi: 10.1038/npp.2016.215. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Sex as a Biological Variable: Who, What, When, Why, and How.

Bale TL1,2,3, Epperson CN2,3,4.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
2
Penn PROMOTES Research on Sex and Gender in Health, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
3
Department of Psychiatry,Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA.
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Abstract

The inclusion of sex as a biological variable in research is absolutely essential for improving our understanding of disease mechanisms contributing to risk and resilience. Studies focusing on examining sex differences have demonstrated across many levels of analyses and stages of brain development and maturation that males and females can differ significantly. This review will discuss examples of animal models and clinical studies to provide guidance and reference for the inclusion of sex as an important biological variable relevant to a Neuropsychopharmacology audience.

PMID:
27658485
PMCID:
PMC5399243
DOI:
10.1038/npp.2016.215
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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