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Metabolites. 2016 Sep 19;6(3). pii: E29. doi: 10.3390/metabo6030029.

Untargeted NMR Spectroscopic Analysis of the Metabolic Variety of New Apple Cultivars.

Author information

1
Institute of Organic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. philipp-michael.eisenmann@kit.edu.
2
Department of Safety and Quality of Fruit and Vegetables, Max Rubner-Institut, Haid-und-Neu-Straße 9, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. ehlers.mona@web.de.
3
Department of Safety and Quality of Fruit and Vegetables, Max Rubner-Institut, Haid-und-Neu-Straße 9, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. christoph.weinert@mri.bund.de.
4
Institute of Organic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. pavleta.tzvetkova@kit.edu.
5
Institute for Biological Interfaces 4, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany. pavleta.tzvetkova@kit.edu.
6
Institute of Organic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. mara.silber@student.kit.edu.
7
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Max Rubner-Institut, Haid-und-Neu-Straße 9, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. manuela.rist@mri.bund.de.
8
Institute of Organic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. burkhard.luy@kit.edu.
9
Institute for Biological Interfaces 4, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany. burkhard.luy@kit.edu.
10
Institute of Organic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. claudia.muhle-goll@kit.edu.
11
Institute for Biological Interfaces 4, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany. claudia.muhle-goll@kit.edu.

Abstract

Metabolome analyses by NMR spectroscopy can be used in quality control by generating unique fingerprints of different species. Hundreds of components and their variation between different samples can be analyzed in a few minutes/hours with high accuracy and low cost of sample preparation. Here, apple peel and pulp extracts of a variety of apple cultivars were studied to assess their suitability to discriminate between the different varieties. The cultivars comprised mainly newly bred varieties or ones that were brought onto the market in recent years. Multivariate analyses of peel and pulp extracts were able to unambiguously identify all cultivars, with peel extracts showing a higher discriminative power. The latter was increased if the highly concentrated sugar metabolites were omitted from the analysis. Whereas sugar concentrations lay within a narrow range, polyphenols, discussed as potential health promoting substances, and acids varied remarkably between the cultivars.

KEYWORDS:

malus domestica; metabolomics; multivariate analysis; quality control

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.

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