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Microscopy (Oxf). 2017 Feb 8;66(1):3-14. doi: 10.1093/jmicro/dfw041.

Direct visualization of lithium via annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy: a review.

Author information

1
School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia.
2
Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, 500 Dong-Chuan Road, Shanghai 200241, P.R. China.
3
Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.
4
Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramic Center, Nagoya 456-8587, Japan.

Abstract

Annular bright field (ABF) scanning transmission electron microscopy has proven able to directly image lithium columns within crystalline environments, offering much insight into the structure and properties of lithium-ion battery materials. We summarize the image formation mechanisms underpinning ABF imaging, review the experimental application of this technique to imaging lithium in materials and overview the conditions that help maximize the visibility of lithium columns.

KEYWORDS:

annular bright field; atomic-resolution imaging; detector geometry; image simulation; lithium; scanning transmission electron microscopy

PMID:
27655936
DOI:
10.1093/jmicro/dfw041

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