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Curr Med Chem. 2016 Sep 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Phytochemical and pharmacological activity profile of Crataegus oxyacantha L. (hawthorn) - A cardiotonic herb.

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Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, 06330 Ankara, Turkey - Natural product Ankara, Turkey.


Crataegus oxyacantha L. (syn. C. rhipidophylla Gand.) (Rosaceae) is one of two medicinally recognized hawthorn species in European Pharmacopeia. Standardization of the extract prepared from the berry and flowers of the plant is required according to its oligomeric procyanidins. C. oxyacantha is well-known for its use in the treatment of various heart problems particularly, including heart failure in cases of declining cardiac performance equivalent to stages I and II of the New York Heart Association classification, angina pectoris, hypertension with myocardial insufficiency, mild alterations of cardiac rhythm, and atherosclerosis. C. oxyacantha has been reported to exert several other pharmacological activities such as hypotensive, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anxiolytic, immunomodulatory, and antimutagenic. Oligomeric procyanidins and flavone/flavonol types of flavonoids, which are considered to be the chief groups of active substances, phenolic acids, triterpenes, fatty acids, and sterols are present in the plant. The present review aims mainly to outline cardiotonic effect of C. oxyacantha as well as its brief phytochemistry. Numerous experiments and clinical studies have underlined cardiovascular efficacy of the plant through various mechanisms including positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effects, escalation in coronary blood flow and exercise tolerance, inhibition of the enzymes such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and phosphodiesterase, anti-inflammatory and antihyperlipidemic effects, improving status of antioxidant enzymes, etc., which support its cardioactive efficacy. The plant possesses several other bioactivities for human health usually concomitant to its rich polyphenolic content.


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