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Immunity. 2016 Sep 20;45(3):656-668. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.08.018.

CD8(+) Lymphocytes Are Required for Maintaining Viral Suppression in SIV-Infected Macaques Treated with Short-Term Antiretroviral Therapy.

Author information

1
Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
2
AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick National Laboratory, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.
3
Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
4
Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
5
Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
6
Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. Electronic address: gsilves@emory.edu.

Abstract

Infection with HIV persists despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), and treatment interruption results in rapid viral rebound. Antibody-mediated CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (RMs) shows that these cells contribute to viral control in untreated animals. However, the contribution of CD8(+) lymphocytes to maintaining viral suppression under ART remains unknown. Here, we have shown that in SIV-infected RMs treated with short-term (i.e., 8-32 week) ART, depletion of CD8(+) lymphocytes resulted in increased plasma viremia in all animals and that repopulation of CD8(+) T cells was associated with prompt reestablishment of virus control. Although the number of SIV-DNA-positive cells remained unchanged after CD8 depletion and reconstitution, the frequency of SIV-infected CD4(+) T cells before depletion positively correlated with both the peak and area under the curve of viremia after depletion. These results suggest a role for CD8(+) T cells in controlling viral production during ART, thus providing a rationale for exploring immunotherapeutic approaches in ART-treated HIV-infected individuals.

Comment in

PMID:
27653601
PMCID:
PMC5087330
DOI:
10.1016/j.immuni.2016.08.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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