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Springerplus. 2016 Sep 7;5(1):1508. doi: 10.1186/s40064-016-3197-y. eCollection 2016.

TNF-α gene polymorphisms and expression.

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Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, P.O. 34517, New Damietta, Damietta Egypt.
Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.


Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine with an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Its encoding gene is located in the short arm of chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex class III region. Most of the TNF-α gene polymorphisms are located in its promoter region and they are thought to affect the susceptibility and/or severity of different human diseases. This review summarizes the data related to the association between TNF-α gene and its receptor polymorphisms, and the development of autoimmune diseases. Among these polymorphisms the -308G/A TNF-α promotor polymorphism has been associated several times with the the development of autoimmune diseases, however some discrepant results have been recorded. The other TNF-α gene polymorphisms had little or no association with autoimmune diseases. Current results about the molecules controlling TNF-α expression are also presented. The discrepancy between different records could be related partly to either the differences in the ethnic origin or number of the studied individuals, or the abundance and activation of other molecules that interact with the TNF-α promotor region or other elements.


Autoimmune diseases; Expression; Polymorphisms; TNF-α

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