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J Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Dec;78:125-130. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2016.09.007. Epub 2016 Sep 17.

Adverse effects in lumbar spinal cord morphology and tissue biochemistry in Sprague Dawley male rats following exposure to a continuous 1-h a day 900-MHz electromagnetic field throughout adolescence.

Author information

1
Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.
2
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ordu University, Ordu, Turkey.
3
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ordu University, Ordu, Turkey.
4
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Düzce University, Düzce, Turkey.
5
Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey. Electronic address: eodaci@gmail.com.

Abstract

Cell phones, an indispensable element of daily life, are today used at almost addictive levels by adolescents. Adolescents are therefore becoming increasingly exposed to the effect of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by cell phones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a 900-MHz EMF throughout adolescence on the lumbar spinal cord using histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley (28.3-43.9g) aged 21days were included in the study. These were divided equally into three groups - control (CG), sham (SG) and electromagnetic (ELMAG). No procedure was performed on the CG rats until the end of the study. SG and ELMAG rats were kept inside an EMF cage (EMFC) for 1h a day every day at the same time between postnatal days 22 and 60. During this time, ELMAG rats were exposed to the effect of a 900-MHz EMF, while the SG rats were kept in the EMFC without being exposed to EMF. At the end of the study, the lumbar regions of the spinal cords of all rats in all groups were extracted. Half of each extracted tissue was stored at -80°C for biochemical analysis, while the other half was used for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. In terms of histopathology, a lumbar spinal cord with normal morphology was observed in the other groups, while morphological irregularity in gray matter, increased vacuolization and infiltration of white matter into gray matter were pronounced in the ELMAG rats. The cytoplasm of some neurons in the gray matter was shrunken and stained dark, and vacuoles were observed in the cytoplasms. The apoptotic index of glia cells and neurons were significantly higher in ELMAG compared to the other groups. Biochemical analysis revealed a significantly increased MDA value in ELMAG compared to CG, while SOD and GSH levels decreased significantly. In conclusion, our study results suggest that continuous exposure to a 900-MHz EMF for 1h a day through all stages of adolescence can result in impairments at both morphological and biochemical levels in the lumbar region spinal cords of Sprague Dawley rats.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescence; Cell phone; Electromagnetic field; Lumbar spinal cord; Sprague Dawley male rats

PMID:
27650207
DOI:
10.1016/j.jchemneu.2016.09.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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