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Schizophr Res. 2017 Mar;181:63-69. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2016.09.019. Epub 2016 Sep 17.

Abnormalities in chemokine levels in schizophrenia and their clinical correlates.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USA; Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, USA.
2
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USA.
3
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USA; Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging, University of California, San Diego, USA.
4
Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology, Semel Institute for Neuroscience, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
5
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USA; Desert-Pacific Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, USA.
6
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USA; Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging, University of California, San Diego, USA; Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, USA. Electronic address: djeste@ucsd.edu.

Abstract

Chemokines are promising biomarkers of immune activation and inflammation, but evidence for chemokine abnormalities in schizophrenia and their relationship to clinical factors remains inconclusive. We aimed to understand chemokine-related diagnostic differences and clinical correlates using a comprehensive panel and studying a large, well-characterized sample of adults with and without schizophrenia. We studied 134 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 112 healthy comparison (HC) individuals, 26 to 65years of age. Clinical measures were obtained, and plasma levels of 11 chemokines were assessed using multiplex immunoassay. Schizophrenia vs. HC differences were tested for each chemokine, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and current smoking status. We also examined whether age and gender relationships differed between diagnostic groups. Using logistic regression, we created a Chemokine Index (CI) and explored its clinical correlates. Levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β/CCL4), Eotaxin-1 (CCL11), thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17), and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) were significantly higher in persons with schizophrenia than HCs. Group differences in TARC were reduced after adjusting for covariates. The CI, a linear combination of Eotaxin-1 and MDC levels, was positively associated with age, duration of schizophrenia, and severity of negative symptoms. Levels of chemokines with neuroimmune regulatory effects were higher in individuals with schizophrenia, particularly in older and chronic patients. Treatments aimed at normalizing chemokine levels might improve mental and physical health among schizophrenia patients as they age.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Chemokines; Immune system; Inflammation; Schizophrenia

PMID:
27650194
PMCID:
PMC5357211
DOI:
10.1016/j.schres.2016.09.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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