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Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:8634603. doi: 10.1155/2016/8634603. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Role of Macrophages in the Repair Process during the Tissue Migrating and Resident Helminth Infections.

Author information

1
Unidad de Biomedicina, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 54090 Tlalnepantla, MEX, Mexico.
2
Departamento de Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, UNAM, 04510 Ciudad de México, Mexico.
3
Unidad de Biomedicina, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 54090 Tlalnepantla, MEX, Mexico; Laboratorio Nacional en Salud, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, UNAM, 54090 Tlalnepantla, MEX, Mexico.

Abstract

The Th1/Th2/Th17 balance is a fundamental feature in the regulation of the inflammatory microenvironment during helminth infections, and an imbalance in this paradigm greatly contributes to inflammatory disorders. In some cases of helminthiasis, an initial Th1 response could occur during the early phases of infection (acute), followed by a Th2 response that prevails in chronic infections. During the late phase of infection, alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) are important to counteract the inflammation caused by the Th1/Th17 response and larval migration, limiting damage and repairing the tissue affected. Macrophages are the archetype of phagocytic cells, with the primary role of pathogen destruction and antigen presentation. Nevertheless, other subtypes of macrophages have been described with important roles in tissue repair and immune regulation. These types of macrophages challenge the classical view of macrophages activated by an inflammatory response. The role of these subtypes of macrophages during helminthiasis is a controversial topic in immunoparasitology. Here, we analyze some of the studies regarding the role of AAMs in tissue repair during the tissue migration of helminths.

PMID:
27648452
PMCID:
PMC5014929
DOI:
10.1155/2016/8634603
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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