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BMC Vet Res. 2016 Sep 20;12:209. doi: 10.1186/s12917-016-0803-8.

Residues of chlortetracycline, doxycycline and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim in intestinal content and feces of pigs due to cross-contamination of feed.

Author information

1
Operational Directorate Bacterial Diseases, CODA-CERVA (Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre), 1180, Brussels, Belgium.
2
Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.
3
Technology and Food Science Unit, Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, 9090, Melle, Belgium.
4
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.
5
Veterinary Epidemiology Unit, Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.
6
Department of Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ross University, Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis.
7
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium. Siska.Croubels@ugent.be.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cross-contamination of feed with low concentrations of antimicrobials can occur at production, transport and/or farm level. Concerns are rising about possible effects of this contaminated feed on resistance selection in the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, an experiment with pigs was set up, in which intestinal and fecal concentrations of chlortetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DOX) and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (SDZ-TRIM) were determined after administration of feed containing a 3 % carry-over level of these antimicrobials.

RESULTS:

The poor oral bioavailability of tetracyclines resulted in rather high concentrations in cecal and colonic content and feces at steady-state conditions. A mean concentration of 10 mg/kg CTC and 4 mg/kg DOX in the feces was reached, which is higher than concentrations that were shown to cause resistance selection. On the other hand, lower mean levels of SDZ (0.7 mg/kg) and TRIM (< limit of detection of 0.016 mg/kg) were found in the feces, corresponding with the high oral bioavailability of SDZ and TRIM in pigs.

CONCLUSIONS:

The relation between the oral bioavailability and intestinal concentrations of the tested antimicrobials, may be of help in assessing the risks of cross-contaminated feed. However, future research is needed to confirm our results and to evaluate the effects of these detected concentrations on resistance selection in the intestinal microbiota of pigs.

KEYWORDS:

Chlortetracycline; Cross-contamination; Doxycycline; Feces; Intestinal content; Oral bioavailability; Pigs; Sulfadiazine; Trimethoprim

PMID:
27645697
PMCID:
PMC5028959
DOI:
10.1186/s12917-016-0803-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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