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J Psychiatr Res. 2016 Dec;83:176-183. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.09.007. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

The premonitory urge revisited: An individualized premonitory urge for tics scale.

Author information

1
Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address: jfmcguire@mednet.ucla.edu.
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
3
Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
4
Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; All Children's Hospital, Johns Hopkins Medicine, St. Petersburg, FL, USA.
5
Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; All Children's Hospital, Johns Hopkins Medicine, St. Petersburg, FL, USA; Rogers Behavioral Health - Tampa Bay, Tampa, FL, USA; Department of Health Policy and Management, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Premonitory urge ratings have advanced our understanding of urge phenomenology among individuals with tic disorders (TD). However, these ratings have been limited by their reliance on a single global dimension of urge severity. This study examined the psychometric properties of a novel scale called the Individualized Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (I-PUTS) that assesses urge severity across multiple dimensions (number, frequency, and intensity).

METHOD:

Seventy-five youth with a TD and their parents participated. Clinicians assessed youth's tic severity, depression severity, rages, and premonitory urges. Parents completed ratings of youth's anxiety, affect lability, and general psychopathology. Youth completed self-report ratings of anxiety, urge severity, and distress tolerance.

RESULTS:

The I-PUTS identified that youth experienced an average of three distinct urges, but had an average of seven tics over the past week. Urges were primarily localized in the head/face, neck/throat, and arm regions. All I-PUTS dimensions exhibited excellent inter-rater reliability. The I-PUTS dimensions exhibited good convergent validity with global urge ratings and tic severity, and appropriate divergent validity from other clinical constructs. Youth who exhibited discrepant reports between clinician-administered and self-report urge ratings had less anxiety and tic severity, and greater inattention and externalizing problems compared to youth who exhibited good agreement.

CONCLUSIONS:

The I-PUTS is a reliable and valid assessment of urge phenomena, which provides additional and complementary information to existing urge scales. It highlights the existence of multiple dimensions of urge severity, and presents particular utility when assessing urges in youth with TD who have inattention and externalizing problems.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Premonitory urge; Tic disorder; Tic severity; Tourette disorder

PMID:
27643476
PMCID:
PMC5107126
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.09.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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