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Nat Rev Immunol. 2016 Nov;16(11):676-689. doi: 10.1038/nri.2016.95. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

Interleukin-33 in health and disease.

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Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G3 8HF, UK.
School of Biology and Basic Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China.
Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, 31077 Toulouse, France.
Starzl Transplantation Institute, and the Departments of Surgery and Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.


Interleukin-33 (IL-33) - a member of the IL-1 family - was originally described as an inducer of type 2 immune responses, activating T helper 2 (TH2) cells and mast cells. Now, evidence is accumulating that IL-33 also potently stimulates group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), regulatory T (Treg) cells, TH1 cells, CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. This pleiotropic nature is reflected in the role of IL-33 in tissue and metabolic homeostasis, infection, inflammation, cancer and diseases of the central nervous system. In this Review, we highlight the molecular and cellular characteristics of IL-33, together with its major role in health and disease and the potential therapeutic implications of these findings in humans.

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