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J Mol Med (Berl). 2017 Jan;95(1):13-20. doi: 10.1007/s00109-016-1474-4. Epub 2016 Sep 17.

Interaction between gut microbiota and toll-like receptor: from immunity to metabolism.

Author information

1
The State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Hong Kong, SAR, China.
2
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China.
3
Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Surgery, University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany.
4
The State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Hong Kong, SAR, China. cwhwoo@hku.hk.
5
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China. cwhwoo@hku.hk.

Abstract

The human gut contains trillions of commensal bacteria, and similar to pathogenic bacteria, the gut microbes and their products can be recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs). It is well acknowledged that the interaction between gut microbiota and the local TLRs help to maintain the homeostasis of intestinal immunity. High-fat intake or obesity can weaken gut integrity leading to the penetration of gut microbiota or their bacterial products into the circulation, leading to the activation of TLRs on immune cells and subsequently low-grade systemic inflammation in host. Metabolic cells including hepatocytes and adipocytes also express TLRs. Although they are able to produce and secrete inflammatory molecules, the effectiveness remains low compared with the immune cells embedded in the liver and adipose tissue. The interaction of TLRs in these metabolic cells or organs with gut microbiota remains unclear, but a few studies have suggested that the functions of these TLRs are related to metabolism. Alteration of the gut microbiota is associated with body weight change and adiposity in human, and the interaction between the commensal gut microbiota and TLRs may possibly involve both metabolic and immunological regulation. In this review, we will summarize the current findings on the relationship between TLRs and gut microbiota with a focus on metabolic regulation and discuss how such interaction participates in host metabolism.

KEYWORDS:

Gut microbiota; Metabolic regulation; Toll-like receptor

PMID:
27639584
PMCID:
PMC5225216
DOI:
10.1007/s00109-016-1474-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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